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95.14.1 - Fakhrul I. CHOWDHURY and Frank TROVATO, Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4 (Canada)

The role and status of women and the timing of marriage in five Asian countries (p. 143-158)

This study explores the relationship of women's role and status in society to their marriage timing in five non-industrial Asian countries (Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Malaysia). The role and status of women, conceptualized from acquired characteristics such as education and occupation before marriage, determines the largest decree of variance explained in timing of marriage. Even after socioeconomic and ethno-religious variables are statistically controlled, the net effects of women's education and occupation on age at marriage are found to be positive and substantial in magnitude. Additional evidence indicates that country differences in female age at marriage are also conditioned by the state of a country's socioeconomic transition. (ASIA, WOMEN'S STATUS, AGE AT MARRIAGE)

95.14.2 - Bert N. ADAMS, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (U.S.A.) and Edward MBURUGU, Department of Sociology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi (Kenya) Kikuyu bridewealth and polygyny today (p. 159-166)

This study of the Kikuyu today looked at bridewealth and polygyny. The sample was about 300 30-40 year-olds, divided between residents of Nairobi and rural Kiambu. The families of almost all the male respondents had paid bridewealth at their marriages ordinarily a combination of cash and livestock, and there was considerable complaint about cost. About one in six of the male respondents either were currently in polygynous relationships, or planned to be. This was lower than the 28% of their fathers who were polygynous. The explanation for the reduction included opportunity, attitude change, expense, and the availability of extramarital relationships. (KENYA, POLYGYNY, DOWRY, ETHNIC GROUPS)

95.14.3 - Tony HADDAD and Lawrence LAM, Department of Sociology, York University, 2060 Vari Hall, Downsview, Ontario M3J 1P3(Canada)

The impact of migration on the sexual division of family work: A case study of Italian immigrant couples (p. 167-182)

Through the use of indepth interviews, this study examines the impact of migration, from one social-economic milieu to another, on family dynamics among 20 immigrant Italian couples in Toronto. Specifically highlighting the effects of wives' wage employment on the division of family work and decision-making power, the authors question the argument that migration results in egalitarian gender dynamics within immigrant families. In doing so, they identify three distinct patterns of wife-husband relations among immigrant families: 1) Sex-segregated division of family work and unequal power relations; 2) Sex-segregated division of labour and greater sharing of power; 3) Sex-transcendent division of labour and shared power under, extenuating circumstances. Based on these findings, the authors argue that changes taking place as a result of migration are reflective of adaptation to new demands within the context of a new social and economic environment. (CANADA, ITALY, IMMIGRANTS, COUPLE, SEXUAL DIVISION OF LABOUR)

95.14.4 - Arne MASTEKAASA, Department of Sociology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1096, Blindern, N-0317, Oslo (Norway) Marital status, distress and well-being: An international comparison (p. 183-206)

A relationship between marital status on the one hand and various indicators of well-being and mental health on the other has been found in a large number of studies. Typically, that the currently married have been shown to enjoy the most favorable position, the divorced and widowed are generally worst off, and the never married in an intermediate position. This paper provides an analysis of the consistency and generality of this relationship: To what extent are there national differences? Is the relationship stronger for men than for women, as has been suggested by several authors? And is there evidence for such a relationship whatever measure of psychological well-being we use? Comparable interview data from 19 countries, including a few non-western ones, are used. The data are analyzed by ordinary linear regression methods, representing marital status by means of dummy variables and controlling, for age and parenthood. At least some evidence of differences in psychological well-being between the currently married on the one hand and the previously married and the never married on the other are found in practically all countries. On average the relationship between marital status and wellbeing is quite similar for men and women. More striking, differences are found between well-being measures. The relationship with marital status is weakest for positive affect and strongest for self-reported happiness, with the results for negative affect and overall life satisfaction falling in between. (MARITAL STATUS, INDIVIDUAL WELFARE, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY)

95.14.5 - Paul R. AMATO, Department of Sociology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0324 (U.S.A.) The impact of divorce on men and women in India and the United States (p. 207-222)

Divorced individuals in India and the United States experience similar problems with economic adequacy, social support, and psychological well-being. Furthermore, the predictors of divorce adjustment are similar in both societies. However, Indian women experience more problems than Indian men; they also appear to suffer more hardship than American women. Three factors are responsible for this pattern: Indian women's economic dependence on men, Indian cultural beliefs about women and marriage, and the patriarchal organization of the Indian joint family. (INDIA, UNITED STATES, DIVORCED PERSONS, COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS, WOMEN'S STATUS)

95.14.6 - Pat M. KEITH, Department of Sociology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-1070 (U.S.A.) and Seon H. HONG, Institute for Gerontology, Seoul (Korea) Depressive symptoms of younger and older Korean married women (p. 223-232)

This research investigated correlates of depressive symptoms among 464 married Korean women. The relative importance of disagreement between spouses, financial strain, perceptions of deprivation in selected areas of life, housework, and the presence of in-laws in the household were considered in relation to depressive symptoms among younger and older women. With the exception of the importance of the comparative evaluation of health, factors associated with well-being tended to differ by age. (KOREA, WOMEN'S STATUS, INDIVIDUAL WELFARE, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY)

95.14.7 - Kathleen S. BAHR, Department of Family Sciences, Brigham Young University, 1000 SWKT, Provo, Utah 84602 (U.S.A.) The strengths of Apache grandmothers: Observations on commitment, culture and caretaking (p. 233-248)

Norms for American Indian grandparenting differ sharply from those for grandparenting in the wider society. In contrast to Anglo patterns of grandparental "detachment", "retirement", and "empty nest", Indian grandparenting is often a time of intense family responsibility, economic challenge, and nest filled to overflowing. An exploratory, qualitative study of grandmothering, among the White Mountain Apache, based largely on indepth interviews with grandmothers and their adult children (N=18), reveals that Apache grandmothers commonly assume ultimate responsibility for the care of grandchildren, a role that requires economic resourcefulness, hard work, and commitment. A description of contemporary Apache grandmothering is followed by a comparison of selected themes and issues in both ethnic contexts. In a pattern of family strength amid adversity, the grandmothers anchor the cultural heritage and the physical well-being of the Apache people. (UNITED STATES, INDIGENOUS POPULATION, ANCESTORS, WOMEN'S STATUS, DEPENDENCY BURDEN)

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