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Spain (Madrid) 97


1996 - NUMBER 0

99.97.1 - Spanish - Walter ACTIS, Miguel Angel DE PRADA and Carlos PEREDA, Colectivo IOE, C/ Luna, 11, 28004 Madrid (Spain)

Research on international migration (?C?mo estudiar las migraciones internacionales?) (p. 7-23)

In the article it is asserted that in Spain, a characteristics of the incipient research on international migrations is the lack of debate on theoretical and methodological issues. The main theoretical approaches used in research in other countries are then characterized; insistence is made on the multi-dimensionality of the phenomenon and a descriptive chart of this complexity is presented, finally ending with some considerations on the methodologies commonly used. Rather than give an exhaustive presentation of a closed point of view, the article intends to introduce elements for a debate which is deemed necessary if one wishes research on migrations to go once and for all beyond the sphere of decontextualized descriptions. (SPAIN, INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, RESEARCH, THEORY, RESEARCH METHODS)

99.97.2 - Spanish - Rosa APARICIO, Instituto de Estudios sobre Migraciones, Universidad Comillas, 3, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

Integration strictness in different administrative matters: Education, culture, health, housing, employment and social services (Las exigencias de la integraci?n: Implicaciones de las distintas ?reas de gestion: educaci?n, cultura, salud, vivienda, empleo y servicios sociales) (p. 25-44)

The Commission of Experts on Intercommunitarian Relations sponsored by the European Council recommended a policy for the integration of immigrants which would consider these as groups of communities rather than look on them only as individuals, and which would also involve the native population of the host countries. It expressly mentioned the need for these to turn into multiethnic and multicultural societies. This requires changes in the social body as a whole (natives and immigrants) as well as attending not only to discrimination based on xenophobia (intentional), but also to the structural discrimination which is produced inadvertently because of cultural differences. The theoretical difficulties are considered (we have no idea of how a multicultural society would function). On the practical level, treatment is given to the adjustments required at the administrative level of the social services. Several aspects of these readjustments are examined more specifically. (WESTERN EUROPE, MIGRANT ASSIMILATION, CULTURAL CONTACTS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, GOVERNMENT POLICY)

99.97.3 - Spanish - Raimundo ARAG?N BOMB?N, Ministerio de Asuntos Sociales, C/ Ventura Rodriguez, 7, 28008 Madrid (Spain)

Ten years of the immigration policy (Diez a?os de pol?tica de inmigraci?n) (p. 45-59)

In the last ten years, Spain has turned from being a country of emigration to being a country of immigration.The Socialist Government decided that, in the social and work spheres, it should be one and the same institution -- although renewed -- which took charge of both aspects, emigration and immigration: the Instituto Espa?ol de Emigraci?n was thus converted into the Direcci?n General de Migraciones. From the approval of the Law which regulates the Rights and Obligations of Foreigners (Ley de Extranjer?a) to the approval of the Plan for the Social Integration of Immigrants or the constitution of the Forum, a stretch sometimes full of obstacles has been covered, which, nonetheless, shows the evolution suffered by our society. The article is written from the standpoint of one who was responsible for articulating and executing this policy within the administration. In any case it is the memory, still fresh, of the projects, efforts and achievements of a committed team, politically backed and accompanied by trade unions, NGOs and Associations of Immigrants. (SPAIN, MIGRANT ASSIMILATION, LEGISLATION, GOVERNMENT POLICY)

99.97.4 - Spanish - Paolo BARBESINO, Graduate Research Center in Culture and Communication, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9RQ (R.-U.), and Fablo QUASSOLI, Dipartamento di Studi Politici e Sociali, Universit? di Pavia, Via Luino, Pavie (Italie)

Community as communication: An ethnography of immigration in Milan (La comunidad como comunicaci?n: Una etnograf?a de la inmigraci?n en Milan) (p. 61-94)

Community has often been used impressionistically as a tool for concealing a lack of theorising in analytical concepts. As a result, its operationalization in empirical social research gave rise to reified descriptions as is quite often the case with studies on ethnicity and international migration. Drawing upon recent developments in systems theory, second order cybernetics, and organizational theory an alternative conceptualization is suggested which brings together notions of place, time and the idea of memory as an including/excluding device. Understanding community in terms of communication enables not only to fully exploit both an ethnographic approach and network analysis, but also to work out more sensitive tools for policy-making. In this perspective, the concept has been used in an ethnography of migration in Milan, Italy, and its results evaluated. (ITALY, IMMIGRATION, COMMUNITIES, COMMUNICATION, SOCIOLOGY, METHODOLOGY)

99.97.5 - Spanish - Cristina J. GORT?ZAR ROTAECHE, Facultad de Derecho, Universidad Comillas, C/ Alberto Aguliera, 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

De facto refugees (Los refugiados de facto) (p. 95-106)

The "newly created" States which reached their independence as a result of the United Nations decolonizing efforts, have been the breeding ground for the so-called "new refugees" or "de facto refugees". The reason for this is that these States have weak sovereignties which cannot become strong because of their poor economies. This situation has lead to endless civil wars and, consequently, has forced displacements on large number of their population. The tragedy which is now being lived in the Region of the Great Lakes is a terrible example. (MIDDLE AFRICA, REFUGEES)

99.97.6 - Spanish - Salom? ADROHER BIOSCA, Facultad de Derecho, Universidad Comillas, C/ Alberto Aguilera, 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

Rights to marry and emigration (El derecho a contraer matrimonio en la emigraci?n) (p. 107-131)

The fundamental right of all individuals to marry can be held up when the one who exercises it is an immigrant. The present paper takes up some of the obstacles which have existed in the Spanish laws when Spain was a country of emigration and now when we have become a land of immigration. (Spain, IMMIGRANT, LEGISLATION, MARIAGE, EMPECHEMENT AU MARIAGE, DROIT DE L'HOMME)

1997 - NUMBER 1

99.97.7 - Spanish - Carlota SOL?, Departamento de Sociolog?a, Facultad de Ciencias Pol?ticas y Sociolog?a, Universidad Aut?noma de Barcelona, C/ Aribau, 146 bis, 08036 Barcelone (Spain)

Employment instability of non-Europeans immigrants (La irregularidad laboral de la inmigraci?n extracomunitaria) (p. 7-40)

The article presents data on the situation of the undocumented immigrants who took advantage of the process of regularization of 1991, estimates of their presence in the black economy and their difficulties in employment. As a reflection, it analyses the way in which present legislation on immigrants can condition their being labelled as irregulars. (SPAIN, IMMIGRANTS, LEGISLATION, MARRIAGE, IMPEDIMENTS TO MARRIAGE, HUMAN RIGHTS)

99.97.8 - Spanish - Bernab? L?PEZ GARC?A and Angeles RAM?REZ, Taller de Estudios Internacionales Mediterr?neos, Universidad Aut?noma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

Is Spain different? Migration balance of Maghrebians in Spain (?Espa?a es diferente? Balance de la inmigraci?n magrebi en Espa?a) (p. 41-71)

Dating from 1991, year in which the first large process of regularization of immigrants takes place in Spain, one can say that immigration in this country has been consolidate. Of all immigrants, Moroccans are the most significant group speaking in terms of numbers. The article pretends to reconstruct the process of immigration in Spain by looking at the history of Moroccan immigration. A look into immigration through the issues of legality/illegality, measures for the control of flows and international relationships, as well as immigration through the analysis of the processes of settlement and the presence of women, are the two great axes on which the article builds. (SPAIN, MOROCCO, IMMIGRANTS, HISTORY)

99.97.9 - Spanish - Mar?a Jes?s CRIADO, I. U. Ortega y Gasset, C/ Santa Fe, 5, 28008 Madrid (Spain)

Life history: The value of memory, wording power (Historias de vida: el valor del recuerdo, el poder de la palabra) (p. 73-120)

Various different circumstances (the end of an era, a model of knowledge which has shown its weakness, a social science which questions itself and searches for new paths) contribute to the recovery of one of the more classical methodologies used by the social sciences, the life-story, giving it new meaning and content. The subjective point of view, the inside look, holds its place again in social science. In the context of epochal change marked by the appearance of new social tensions generated by the process of globalization, some of the more trascendental issues take shape within the framework of the new migrations. The diversity and significance of the dilemmas and conflicts derived from these show this phenomenon to be the center of one of the most extensive and complex fields of study. From this perspective, it is held that the use of the biographic approach not only contributes to a greater knowledge of the problem because it incorporates the subject's point of view, but it can also have other functions. (SOCIAL SCIENCES, METHODOLOGY, EVENT HISTORY ANALYSIS, MIGRATION)

99.97.10 - Spanish - Fran?ois JULIEN-LAFERRI?RE, Centre de Recherches Internationales sur les Droits de l'Homme (CRIDHOM), Universit? de Paris-Sud, Paris (France)

Barriers of asylum seekers to enter Europe: The case of France (Obstaculos para la entrada de solicitantes de asilo en Europa (el caso de Francia)) (p. 121-144)

To face the economic crisis, the European State since the 1970's have been putting up barriers to the entrance of foreigners in their territories, considering each foreigner as a thief trying to pick the lock of the frontiers. This is translated into measures for restricting the entrace to the territory of the different States, the detention of those foreigners who do not fulfill the requirements for entry and their expulsion. Under these conditions, asylum petitioners find great difficulties for fleeing from their country of origin and finding refuge in a Europe which every dan can, in lesser measure, pretend to be a land of asylum. (WESTERN EUROPE, MIGRATION LEGISLATION, REFUGEES)

99.97.11 - Spanish - Carmen GREGORIO GIL, ?rea de Inmigraci?n, CATEP, C/ Francisco de Rojas, 9, 28010 Madrid (Spain)

Study on international migration with gender perspective (El estudio de las migraciones internacionales desde una perspectiva del g?nero) (p. 145-175)

This article is a critical analysis of the different theoretical models applied to the study of migrations from the perspective of the anthropology of gender. (MIGRATION, THEORETICAL MODELS, SEX, ANTHROPOLOGY)

99.97.12 - Spanish - Jos? Javier EZQUERRA UBERO, UPCO, C/ Alberto Aguilera, 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

Rights of foreigners living with families in Spain (El derecho a vivir en familia de los extranjeros en Espa?a: Ensayo de valoraci?n de la normativa aplicable) (p. 177-215)

The objective of this paper is to assess the regulations applicable to family reunification in Spain. The analysis will focus in the general regulation system, but mention will also be made, for purposes of comparison, to the more favourable regulation applicable to Spanish families and to nationals of the other member states of the European Economic Space. (SPAIN, WESTERN EUROPE, FAMILY REUNIFICATION, LEGISLATION, COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS)

99.97.13 - Spanish - Mar?a Teresa GIL BAZO, Programa de Investigaci?n "El Extranjero en la Cultura Europea de Nuestros D?as", Universidad de Deusto, C/ Alameda de Urquijo, 25, 48008 Bilbao (Spain)

Answers from international law regarding transformation of asylum rights in Europe (Respuestas del derecho internacional ante la transformaci?n del r?gimen de asilo en Europa) (p. 217-272)

The member states of the European Union are currently facing one of the major challenges of our time. The influx of immigrants towards Europe in a moment of generalised crisis (economical, political and social) gives rise to new problems and questions that need to be solved with a long-term approach that will respect democratic values and human rights. Within this framework, the process of European integration requires that cooperation on immigration issues shall become an urgent matter, dealt with by member states of the European Union at the international level.

This moment of restrictive transformations in the European international context on immigration and asylum urges reflection on the status of the right of asylum in international law. Such status is not only defined by the specific instruments relating to the protection of refugees, but also by other international instruments for the protection of human rights, and by international customary law itself. This is an approach whose relevance increases before the stronger restrictions imposed on the specific asylum regime by European states. This article aims at analysing international refugee law and the way in which it may be enhanced by international human rights law in order to provide answers to the modifications introduced in the European legislations. (WESTERN EUROPE, ASYLUMS, INTERNATIONAL LAW, HUMAN RIGHTS)

1997 - NUMBER 2

99.97.14 - Spanish ? Carolina MAYEUR

Speech and practice on migration: Contradictions, hypocrisies and pervert effects on current policies (Discursos y practicas migratorias: contradicciones, hipocresias y efectos perversos de las politicas actuales) (p. 9-26)

This article is a contribution of the author, an an expert in the field, to the elaboration of a document commissioned by the European Commission on Migrations, within the framework of its activities, from a group of independent experts. The purpose of the document is to present some points for the member states of the Council of Europe to consider which will serve to orientate them in the adoption of future policies with respect to the management of migratory movements, based on a critical evaluation of the current situation. It also aims to be influential in the necessary definition of a common policy with respect to migration within the framework of the European Union. This document, the final draft of which has been commissioned from the English consultant, John Salt, will be discussed at the Commission meeting which is to take place in the spring of 1998.

The contents of the article aim to expose the contradictions and hypocrisy which characterise European governments' current policies. They stem from a crisis in the migratory model dominant in the 80s, the most visible characteristics of which is the presence in almost all European countries of illegal immigrants. It points out some of the contradictions of this model, both in its facet of controlling migratory movements and integration policies as well as in the alternative strategies which have been proposed, with arguments and data taken from studies with different methodological approaches. Two important ideas are underlined: (1) restrictive immigration and political asylum policies are conductive to illegal immigration, and (2) the relationship established between greater control/better integration has not been demostrated. Finally, it proposes Alain Touraine's recent analyses on "demodernisation" as a possible theoretical integrative framework for the ideas presented. (WESTERN EUROPE, MIGRATION POLICY, GOVERNMENT POLICY, EVALUATION)

99.97.15 - Spanish ? Carlos N. CELAYA

Immigration and political parties in Spain in 1996 (La politica en la frontera: inmigracion y partidos politicos en Espa?a durante 1996) (p. 27-57)

The article is an analysis of the political response to immigration in Spain, taking the year 1996 as a reference. Firstly, the key points of the campaign speeches made by the principal Spanish political parties (PSOE - Spanish Socialist Party; PP - Popular Party) during the legislative elections in March of 1996 are analysed. Secondly, the principal approaches of the political representatives in response to different stituations in which problematic immigration issues required the taking of certain decisions are studied. The expulsion of immigrants from Melilla, problems in social service assistance or errors in immigration policy serve to illustrate a substantial part of the immigration problem in Spain. Both the position of the high political spheres and the debate in local spaces help as to understand the principal challenges and the enormous weaknesses of the poltical response to the question of foreigners. In conclusion, the article offers some explanations as to why political parties have such difficulties in dealing with the problem. (SPAIN, IMMIGRATION, POLITICS, POLITICAL PARTIES)

99.97.16 - Spanish ? Zoubir CHATTOU, Ecole Nationale d'Agriculture, Mekn?s (Maroc), and Pascale RUFFEL, Nantes (France)

To migrate: A question of life or death. Life story of a young Moroccan, Ahmed (Migrar: una cuestion de vida y de muerte. El trasfondo imaginario del proyecto migratorio en el relato de vida de un joven marroqui: Ahmed) (p. 59-73)

The story of Ahmed reveals the influence of the imaginary dimension in the migration problem. When Ahmed talks about his desire to leave Morocco and go to Europe, he tells not only the story about himself and his family but also of how he would have liked that story to have been, the one he dreamt about for his future. Ahmed is aware that the living conditions in Europe for immigrant workers are sometimes difficult. He considers exile to be on the same plane as prison or suicide. However, after death, there is sometimes a re-birth which allows one to avenge the humiliation and the poverty suffered. Thus, this story offers the possbility of understanding the inherent reasoning behind any migratory project or itinerary. (MOROCCO, EMIGRANTS, MIGRATION DETERMINANTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS)

99.97.17 - Spanish ? Claudio BOLZMAN, Institut d'Etudes Sociales, Universit? de Gen?ve (Suisse)

Collective identity, associative dynamics and social participation of immigrant communities in Switzerland (Identidad colectiva, dinamica asociativa y participacion social de las comunidades migrantes en Suiza: la busqueda de una ciudadania local) (p. 75-98)

The purpose of this article is the study of the significance of the new forms of collective identity developed by Spanish and Italian immigrants in Swiss society. The immigrants direct their efforts at local level and rely largely on their own resources to achieve greater social recognition. They express themselves both at the cultural and political levels, through organisations of different sorts and fight for their political rights at the local level. Our analysis establishes a relationship between socio-historical changes and changes in the immigrants' ways of collective expression. (SWITZERLAND, ITALY, SPAIN, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, CULTURAL CONTACTS, MIGRANT ASSIMILATION)

99.97.18 - Spanish ? Jorge A. BUSTAMANTE, Colegio de la Frontera Norte (Mexique)

Migration from Mexico and peso devaluation: An enlightenment (La emigracion desde Mexico y la devaluacion del peso: debelacion de un mito) (p. 99-123)

In this article, the author analyzes the results of two statistical researches on the influx of undocumented Mexicans to the United States in order to dismantle the supposed relationship, defended by north-American public and political instances, between the devaluation of the Mexican peso which occurred on December 19th, 1994, and the increase of these inflows. Migration from Mexico to the United States is conceived as a circular process in which individuals move to and from between two countries, both in legal and undocumented ways, pushed by the interplay of supply and demand, thus building up a social bond formed by the processes of interactions between Mexicans and U.S. nationals within the framework of a relationship related to labour. (MEXICO, UNITED STATES, MIGRATION TRENDS, ECONOMIC POLICY)

99.97.19 - Spanish ? Carlos GIMENEZ

The nature of intercultural mediation (La naturaleza de la mediacion intercultural) (p. 125-159)

The development and growth in Europe of linguistic mediation, link-worker and cultural intermediation programmes have not followed the theoretical and conceptual foundations initially established. As a first step in a series of essays, the author aims to provide some food for thought on the nature and distinctiveness of intercultural mediation. Although it can be understood simply as another form of mediation; it involves situtions and contexts of "multicultural siginifiacne". The article reviews four of its distinguishing features: the ethnic and cultural differences of the parties involved, the effect of these differences on the existing relationship, the relevance of the mediator's cultural background and the intercultural objective. (EUROPE, LANGUAGE MINORITIES, CULTURAL CONTACTS, SOCIAL CONTROL)

99.97.20 - Spanish ? Teresa FREIXES SANJUAN and Jos? Carlos REMOTTI CARBONELL, Universidad Aut?noma de Barcelona, Barcelone (Spain)

Rights of foreigners in the frame of European Council, especially according to the European Convention on human rights (Los derechos de los extranjeros en el ambito del Consejo de Europa: especial referencia a la jurisprudencia del tribunal de derechos humanos) (p. 161-191)

This paper present the criteria which, in accordance with the European Convention on human rights and the legal precedents set by the Court in Strasbourg, must be followed when the Spanish legislator develops norms regulating migratory policy and the rights of foreigners. The obligation to abide by the European Convention and Courts is stipulated in Sections 13, 10.2 and 96 of the Spanish Constitution. (SPAIN, WESTERN EUROPE, MIGRATION POLICY, FOREIGNERS, LAW, LEGISLATION)

99.97.21 - Spanish ? Graciela SARRIBLE, Universit? de Barcelone (Spain)

Global and migratory growth. The case of Spain in Mediterranean areas (Crecimiento total y crecimiento migratorio de la poblacion. El caso de Espa?a en el Mediterran?o) (p. 193-211)

Within the context of Western Europe, both natural and migrant growth factors have varied in recent years, especially in Mediterranean countries. Migrations in this area have similar characteristics, such as the rising number of registered female migrant workers or the place of origin of some of the immigrant groups. In the case of Spain, it is interesting to note that the main influx has been due to the return of Spanish immigrants in recent years, although this trend is declining. International migrant movements are not a continuation of migration to other European countries and should be specifically studied. (SPAIN, WESTERN EUROPE, INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, MIGRATION TRENDS)

99.97.22 - Spanish ? Gabriel ALVAREZ SILVAR

The organisations for immigrants returned to Galicia (Las organizaciones de retornados en Galicia) (p. 213-234)

This article studies the characteirstics of the organistions which have been set up in Galicia for immigrants returned to this Spanish region, and their development in the 90s. The initial multiplicity and variety of associations of ex-emigrants has to deal with their inability to reintegrate into Galician society. The organisational weakness of some of these organisations and their social aid programmes force them to joint other organisations. As a result, only the oldest and most well-established have managed to survive to the present day. (SPAIN, PROVINCES, RETURN MIGRATION, SOCIAL ORGANIZATION)

1998 - NUMBER 3

99.97.23 - Spanish - Ubaldo MART?NEZ VEIGA, Antropolog?a Social, Universidad Aut?noma de Madrid (Spain)

Competition in the labour market between immigrants and the native population (La competici?n en el mercado del trabajo entre inmigrantes y nativos) (p. 9-30)

Although it is frequently thought that there is no competition in the labour market between immigrants and the native population, possible areas of competition are here analysed. The interpretation of the dual labour market is criticized and it is argued that, within capitalism, the attempt to prevent some groups from competing, freezes them for good in a subordinate position. (SPAIN, IMMIGRANT WORKERS, LABOUR MARKET)

99.97.24 - Spanish - Yolanda HERRANZ

Latin American immigration (La inmigraci?n latinoamericana en distintos contextos de recepci?n) (p. 31-51)

The socio-economic and political changes which have taken place in Spain since the political transition to democracy in 1975 until today have generated two clearly differentiated reception contexts for the incorporation of immigrant workers. Specifically, this article deals with the case of Latin American immigration in Madrid, an immigrant group which speaks the same language as the local population, as a clear example of the importance of the integration of immigrants into the workforce. It shows that the historical moment in which their incorporation has taken place has been a determining factor in the type of job, especially as regards their job dependence, and the success of the evolution of their working and economic situation. The contextual changes in Spanish policy with respect to immigration and the socio-cultural and ideological transformation of the Spanish people within the framework of the ongoing process of Spanish integration into international economic and political cricles. (SPAIN, CAPITAL CITY, LATIN AMERICA, IMMIGRATION, IMMIGRANT WORKERS)

99.97.25 - Spanish - G. P?REZ P?REZ and S. VEREDAS MU?OZ, Departamento de Sociolog?a VI, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain)

Living and working conditions of Peruvian immigrants in Madrid (Conditiones de vida (y trabajo) de los inmigrantes peruanos en Madrid) (p. 53-82)

The present article is based on the analysis of the information obtained by means of a statistical analysis of a survey conduct among 110 Peruvian immigrants in Madrid. The living conditions of these workers are presented under a series of headings which include the job sectors in which they settle, various aspects of their working conditions and salaries, dwellings, leisure time activities, contact with their country of origin and the strength of their associationism. Previously, a sociodemographic description of the sample in set-out based on an analysis of their distribution by age, sex, level of education and other variables of interest such as when and how they came to Spain or their legal situation. (SPAIN, PERU, IMMIGRANTS, LIVING CONDITIONS, WORKING CONDITIONS)

99.97.26 - Spanish - Charles BETTY and Michael CAHILL, Universit? de Brighton (Royaume-Uni)

Social and health cares for British retirees living in the Costa del Sol, Spain (Consideraciones sociales y sanitarias sobre los inmigrantes brit?nicos mayores en Espa?a, en particular los de la Costa del Sol) (p. 83-115)

This paper attempts to identify key issues which bear upon the experience ofmigration by older British expatriates to the Costa del Sol. An analysis is given which attempts to describe the pattern and aspects of migration. It also focusses on the influence of tourism on migration; the perceived necessity of establishing friendship and social network patterns; problems of identity, the lack of coping language and its effect on integration into local Spanish society. Self imposed exclusion is explored by the formation of expatriate social clubs. An examination is also made of the provision of Spanish health care for older British retirees, and the problems of adequate after care, and the implications of modern Spanish family structures for the Spanish care system. These issues are being explored in an ongoing study of the older British exapatriate community in Benalmadena in Southern Spain. (SPAIN, UNITED KINGDOM, PENSIONERS, HEALTH)

99.97.27 - Spanish - William BERTHOMI?RE, Migrinter, Universit? de Poitiers (France)

Recent migrations in Israel: Measure and impact (Las migraciones recientes en Isra?l : medidas e impacto) (p. 117-138)

This article is a contribution to the knowledge on the migratory results stemming from the collapse of the communist bloc. since 1989, more than 650,000 Jews have left the Former USSR for Israel. Thus, Israel is become one of the major countries who have felt the effects of this important geopolitical event. So, in this contribution, we will try to expose, with some results of research, the patterns of this migration and to answer the inherent questions in this kind of problematic: how Israel manages with this new migration, what are the effects of this migration for this area so tormented and debated... Also, we will put accent on the links established between Israel and FSU with the support of the migrants networks. In final, we will try to replace this movement in the new Israeli context of migrations in which we can see an integration of the state in the European migration system with the new trend of foreign workers and the development of an illegal population. (ISRAEL, COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDANT STATES, IMMIGRATION, JEWS)

99.97.28 - Spanish - Juan A. CEBR?AN and Sim?n BIHINA

Black Africans in Spain (Subsaharianos en Espa?a) (p. 141-165)

The immigration of population from sub-Saharan to Spain is explained in this article together with its causes and effects on the place of origin, and on the place of destination -- Western Europe. It is argued that African poverty is the main factor of emigration, much more important than political instability. In order to assess the numerical importance of the flows of African immigrants, we have used the statistics of the Interior and those provided by the African Embassies in Madrid. Both sources of data need to be purged, a task which has not been undertaken for this occasion. The most common incidents in the journey of our immigrants from Africa to Europe are then presented, based for the most part on several open surveys which have been done. Finally, the more structural repercussions of migrations from Africa to Europe and the evolution of Spanish migration policy in the last few years are analysed. (SPAIN, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, IMMIGRATION, MIGRATION DETERMINANTS, ESTIMATES, IMMIGRATION POLICY)

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